THE POST

  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    Ben Bradlee’s office…


    Editor Ben Bradlee [Tom Hanks],
    Publisher Katharine Graham [Meryl Streep] and Chairman of the Board Frederick “Fritz” Beebe [Tracy Letts] discuss the future of the paper...


    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    Ben Bradlee’s office…


    Director Steven Spielberg works out a shot with actors Tom Hanks, Meryl Streep and Tracy Letts and camera crew.

    Set Decorator Rena DeAngelo SDSA reveals,
    “I made sure to get the same Royal typewriter
    Ben Bradlee actually had in his office, since Tom Hanks is a typewriter fanatic.”


    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    Ben Bradlee’s office…

    Tom Hanks as Ben Bradlee...

    DeAngelo says,
    “I had reference photos of his office, so was able to capture the casual look of a well-traveled newsman. He had cartoons, illustrations and photos with JFK casually pinned to his walls...

    I paid special attention to the book titles on his shelves in his office and his home. The camera might not see them, but Tom Hanks noticed. He went straight to the shelves and started looking through the books.”


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    Ben Bradlee’s office…


    Ben Bradlee [Tom Hanks] and
    Katharine Graham [Meryl Streep] consider the risks of publishing the “Pentagon Papers”...

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    newsroom 1971…


    The set was built into an empty former AT&T building from the 1950s.
    DeAngelo and Production Designer Rick Carter were determined to give the director and actors a totally immersive set...


    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    newsroom 1971…


    Producer Amy Pascal...
    “You just couldn’t believe the realism of this set.
    It even seemed to have cigarette butts from 1971. Yet nothing was overdone.”


    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    newsroom 1971…


    Business reporting department...
    Each department had the correct paperwork, tools and research for its area of expertise...

    For more, see article below!

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    newsroom 1971…


    Washington Post veteran Steve Coll recalls...
    “My first day on set was almost an out of body experience. With all the extras looking like 1970s reporters, all the black phones, all the cigarette smoke lingering in the air, it was so real.
    The appetite of these filmmakers for accuracy was impressive.”


    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    Publisher Katharine Graham’s office, 1971…


    Katharine Graham [Meryl Streep] took over as publisher after both her father and husband died. She was the first woman to serve as publisher of a major newspaper in the US...


    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    Publisher Katharine Graham’s office, 1971…


    DeAngelo points out,
    “Katharine Graham’s office was on the executive floor and was her private quiet space away from the noise of the newsroom. I decorated it as a modern office with feminine flourishes. She was in a man’s world, so I didn’t want it to be too feminine but to feel like she had it redecorated to her taste after her husband died and she took over the paper.”


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    Ben Bradlee’s office…


    Ben Bradlee [Tom Hanks] and
    Katharine Graham [Meryl Streep]...
    The unlikely partnership of the first female publisher of THE WASHINGTON POST and its hard-driven editor as they race to expose a massive cover-up of government secrets that spanned three decades and four U.S. Presidents...
    They risk their careers—and their very freedom—to bring long-buried truths to light.

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post,
    pressroom…


    Ben Bradlee [Tom Hanks] and
    Katharine Graham [Meryl Streep]...

    Meryl Streep shares...
    “They really knocked it out of the park by finding and bringing in all these old movable-type printing machines that no longer exist. It was thrilling to do the scene there with the real typesetters. It was like stepping back in time. It gave me the chills...”


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Katharine Graham’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    “I read Katharine Graham’s biography to get a sense of the world she lived in,”
    DeAngelo reveals.
    “She was a Washington socialite and entertained all the time.”

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Katharine Graham’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    “I wanted her house to look sophisticated and wealthy in the public rooms, but warm and welcoming in her private spaces...”

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Katharine Graham’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    “I filled the desk drawers in her study and also the drawers of her bedroom night stand, so if Meryl Streep opened any of them, there would be things that would help her feel like Kay Graham...”

    Meryl Streep, Alison Brie
    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Katharine Graham’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    “She came from a very wealthy family, was brought up to be a wife and a hostess of grand parties...and her family was very important to her. I used family photos in her study and in her office at THE POST to illustrate this...”


    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox




  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Katharine Graham’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    “Her long-time assistant, Evelyn Small, said she had a room called ‘the womb room’ where she spent a lot of her time. We made her study into this room, thus it was warmer and more comfortable than the rest of the house....”

    Photo ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Katharine Graham’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    Producer Amy Pascal notes...
    “This movie is about the power of the truth, but it's also a personal story of a woman’s transformation from a socialite housewife to head of a Fortune 500 company. It’s a personal story inside a historical story of giant stakes and that’s what made it so compelling to all of us.”

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.




  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Katharine Graham’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    Editor Ben Bradlee [Tom Hanks],
    Lawyer Roger Clark [Jesse Plemons],
    Chairman of the Board Fritz Beebe [Tracy Letts] and other members of the board present their views to
    Publisher Katharine Graham [Meryl Streep] about whether or not they should publish the “Pentagon Papers”...

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Ben Bradlee’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    DeAngelo points out,
    “In contrast to Katharine Graham’s formal surroundings, I wanted Ben Bradlee’s house to be a comfortable family home. We built both of these Georgetown townhouses on stage, next door to one another, so they actually felt like neighbors but with starkly different interiors.
    While Kay Graham’s house is formal and perfectly appointed, Bradlee’s house is a family home with kids and kids’ mess, and his wife’s art studio...”


    Tom Hanks
    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Ben Bradlee’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    DeAngelo notes,
    “I spoke to Ben Bradlee’s daughters and got a sense of what the house actually felt like. They told me it was very eclectic, filled with mementos from their many trips to Paris and his time as a foreign correspondent...”

    Photo ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Ben Bradlee’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    “Many of the paintings in Bradlee’s house were painted by Kate Capshaw, Steven Spielberg’s wife. She is quite an accomplished painter and was thrilled when I asked if I could use some of her paintings in the set....”

    Photo ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Ben Bradlee’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    “The home wasn’t decorated, it was filled with a collection of things they had acquired over the course of their lives, more like a jumble of mementos and miss-matched furnishings that all worked together to give him a very different persona at home than in the newsroom...”

    Photo ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Ben Bradlee’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    And yet, the newsroom suddenly, fervently came home with him when THE POST obtained a copy of the Pentagon Papers...


    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Ben Bradlee’s Georgetown home, 1971…

    DeAngelo imparts,
    “His wife Toni was an artist and sculptor. Her studio allowed me to add another bohemian layer to the house that contrasted with Kay's formality...The large white circular sculptures in the studio were re-creations of Toni’s actual work made by one of our scenics.”

    Photo ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox
    All rights reserved.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Newsstand, Washington DC, 1971…

    THE NEW YORK TIMES has just released the first article re: the Pentagon Papers

    For more, see article below!

    Tom Hanks, Bob Odenkirk, Philip Casnoff
    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Weekly Monday morning breakfast,
    Washington DC 1971…


    Ben Bradlee [Tom Hanks] and
    Katharine Graham [Meryl Streep]...at her insistence, the publisher and editor begin each work week with a strategizing meeting in an upscale Washington restaurant...she does know how politics play in this town! He mentions they may have a lead on the Pentagon Papers...

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Motel in undisclosed location, 1971…

    Daniel Ellsberg [Matthew Rhys] reveals the Pentagon Papers to THE WASHINGTON POST Assistant Managing Editor Ben Bagdikian
    [Bob Odenkirk], a former colleague whom he trusts...

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    Vietnam, 1955-1971…

    The Vietnam scenes were created in Westchester New York.

    The film reveals the story of how four Presidential administrations lied to the nation about the circumstances of the war for more than 20 years, the story of why former U.S. Marine and military consultant Daniel Ellsberg blew the whistle...

    Image ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.


  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara’s house,
    Washington DC 1971…


    Katharine Graham [Meryl Streep] personally meets with her good friend Bob McNamara [Bruce Greenwood] to let him know THE POST will be publishing the Pentagon Papers...and to admonish him for his part in the wanton disregard for American soldiers lives...

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.



  • set decorator
    Rena DeAngelo SDSA

    production designer
    Rick Carter

    Twentieth Century Fox


    The Washington Post…

    Director Steven Spielberg notes,
    “This is a very good time to explore the virtues of a free press, to engage in an honest conversation about what contributions the press at its most principled can make to our democracy.”

    Meryl Streep, Steven Spielberg, Tom Hanks

    Photo by Niko Tavernise
    ©2017 Twentieth Century Fox.




 
Throughout American history, there have been catalytic moments in which ordinary citizens must decide whether to put everything on the line...livelihoods, reputations, status, even freedom...to do what they believe to be right and necessary to protect the Constitution and defend American freedom.

With THE POST, multiple-Academy-Award®-winning director Steven Spielberg excavates one such moment. 

 
He brings together an extraordinary mix of actors at the top of their game. At the center of the ensemble piece are the performances of Meryl Streep aa Washington Post Publisher Katharine Graham and Tom Hanks as Editor Ben Bradlee. One an untested leader learning to stake her ground as a woman in a shifting world, the other a hard-nosed newsman evolving from chasing down stories to fighting for the very principles of truth, who discover they can push one another to their best. 
 
Behind the scenes, Spielberg reunites with his close-knit band of award-winning collaborators including Cinematographer Janusz Kaminski, Production Designer Rick Carter, Set Decorator Rena DeAngelo SDSA, Editor Michael Kahn and Composer John Williams, with the legendary Costume Designer Ann Roth joining the circle.
 
It all adds up to a re-creation of 1971 that seems to unfold with mounting suspense in real time. Throughout his career, Spielberg has been drawn to visiting those moments on which historical transformations turn in films ranging from SCHINDLER’S LIST to MUNICH, LINCOLN and BRIDGE OF SPIES. THE POST turns Spielberg’s lens for the very first time on 1970s America, the same era in which he first became one of America’s eminent filmmaking voices.
 
The relentlessly brisk narrative is a story of personal connections and courage, but it also brings Spielberg into the world of newspaper reporting at a critical moment for the nation and the world, a realm on the cusp of change with the rising power of women and the coming of corporatization. Most of all, the story provides a riveting context for a timeless dilemma: when must one speak out to expose a grave national danger even knowing the stakes are unfathomably high? 
--Twentieth Century Fox
 

Set Decorator Rena DeAngelo SDSA has given us insights into some of the great films she’s collaborated on, including BRIDGE OF SPIES and THE HELP.
[Check for them in the Film Decor section!]

Production Designer Rick Carter and now-retired Set Decorator Jim Erickson SDSA received an Academy Award for Spielberg’s LINCOLN.
DeAngelo was nominated, along with Production Designer Adam Stockhausen and SD Bernhard Henrichs, for an Academy Award for Spielberg’s BRIDGE OF SPIES.

 
Thus, a perfect pairing for this Steven Spielberg instant immersion production, described by 20th as "a thrilling drama about the unlikely partnership of the first female publisher of THE WASHINGTON POST and its driven editor as they race to expose a massive cover-up of government secrets that spanned three decades and four U.S. Presidents. The two must overcome their differences as they risk their careers—and their very freedom—to bring long-buried truths to light."
 
We asked Rena to once again take us behind-the-scenes with a few notes on the making of this intense and fabulous film.
Enjoy!
Karen BurgEditor
 

...from Set Decorator Rena DeAngelo SDSA...
 
I got a call from Production Designer Rick Carter to decorate this film in March. He figured since I had done BRIDGE OF SPIES, the familiarity with the players would be an asset given the speed at which we would need to get this movie made on such a tight schedule. Getting the newsroom dressed first gave us a bit of breathing room to work on the built sets, but it was a frantic schedule.  
 
Steven said it was a film that needed to be made and released immediately considering the political climate we had found ourselves in. The freedom of the press is being threatened again now as it was in 1971. I hope that this film will get people even more involved in our democracy and in upholding the freedom of the press. Using the Nixon tapes to make a statement about our current administration was a subtle stroke of Spielbergian genius.
 
 
The newsroom...
 
When we set out to re-create THE WASHINGTON POST newsroom from 1971, we couldn’t find many photos of the actual newsroom of that period. But after meeting with some people from THE POST who were around in ‘71 and then looking through photos provided by Katherine Graham’s long-time assistant, Evelyn Small, we confirmed that the newsroom at that time was actually gray, not brightly colored as it was in the somewhat later occurring events depicted in the film ALL THE PRESIDENT’S MEN...they had moved into another building in the interim...which was great news, since none of us wanted to re-create ALL THE PRESIDENTS MEN. This was before THE POST was a national entity. It was still a hometown newspaper trying to become nationally viable.
 
The location was found in White Plains, NY...a mostly empty AT&T building that was built in the mid-1950s. Perfect architecture, perfect floor plan...even the buildings outside the window looked like DC in the ‘70s! This was a vast space to fill. I sourced the dressing from all over the tri-state area, a bit from LA and, interestingly, chairs from Minnesota.*
 
This was a set I couldn’t stop fussing with. I wanted Steven to be able to shoot from every corner of the space as if he were in a real newsroom. When the actors came in and were assigned their own desks, the room really started to come to life. Steven said the set became a character in the film, and there is no greater compliment than that for a set decorator.
 
Editor’s note: Producer Amy Pascal says, “You just couldn’t believe the realism of this set. It even seemed to have cigarette butts from 1971. Yet nothing was overdone.”
 

 
Editor Ben Bradlee’s office...
 
Ben Bradlee’s office was an extension of the newsroom, and a place where reporters and editors could hang out. We were told he liked a clear view of the news floor from his desk. I had reference photos of his office, so was able to capture the casual look of a well-traveled newsman. He had cartoons, illustrations and photos with JFK casually pinned to his walls. I made sure to get the same Royal typewriter Ben Bradlee actually had in his office, since Tom Hanks is a typewriter fanatic.  
 
I always like to put some things on the sets that the camera may never pick up on but the actors will appreciate for their character. In Bradlee’s office and home, I paid special attention to the book titles on his shelves. The camera might not see them, but Tom Hanks noticed. He went straight to the shelves and started looking through the books.  
 

Publisher Katharine Graham’s office...

Katharine Graham’s office was on the executive floor and was her private quiet space away from the noise of the newsroom. I decorated it as a modern office with feminine flourishes. She was in a man’s world, so I didn’t want it to be too feminine but to feel like she had it redecorated to her taste after her husband died and she took over the paper. I personalized her space with photos of her husband and father, and since she was a luminary, photos of her with past presidents and celebrities.  
 

...the presses...

We were lucky enough to find a printer who still uses the linotype machines in his work in the Brooklyn Navy Yard. We were able to build out this space to make it seem as if it were part of the presses at THE POST. The presses were actually shot at the NEW YORK POST printing press.
The linotype is truly a fascinating machine, not unlike a primitive computer. Showing how the typeface was laid out before everything became automated really made the finale of the movie so dynamic.
 
Editor’s note: Meryl Streep shares...
“They really knocked it out of the park by finding and bringing in all these old movable-type printing machines that no longer exist.
It was thrilling to do the scene there with the real typesetters. It was like stepping back in time. It gave me the chills
...”
 
 

Katharine Graham’s Georgetown home...
 
I read Katharine Graham’s biography to get a sense of the world she lived in. She was a socialite and entertained all the time. She came from a very wealthy family, was brought up to be a wife and a hostess of grand parties...and her family was very important to her. I used family photos in her study and in her office at THE POST to illustrate this. I wanted her house to look sophisticated and wealthy in the public rooms, but warm and welcoming in her private spaces. Evelyn, her long-time assistant, said she had a room called “the womb room” where she spent a lot of her time. We made her study into this room, thus it was warmer and more comfortable than the rest of the house.
 
I filled the desk drawers in her study, and in her office at work, and also the drawers of her bedroom night stand, so if Meryl Streep opened any of them, there would be things that would help her feel like Katharine Graham. Katharine’s book titles were important, too. Since both she and Ben were well-read individuals, the books were an important part of their characters.
 
She had a vast art collection and collected Asian and Japanese art as her mother had. The Diego Rivera painting above her mantel is a copy of one she actually had in her library. The palettes of her home came from research provided by Evelyn. There weren’t many photos of the house before Billy Baldwin redecorated it in 1981, but everyone I spoke to told me they remembered the red room and the golden tones of the dining room.  
 
Editor’s note: Steven Spielberg says, “There is an empowering side to this story as you watch this woman find her voice and also her sense of personal commitment.”
 
 

Ben Bradlee’s house...
 
In contrast to Katharine Graham’s formal surroundings, I wanted Ben Bradlee’s house to be a comfortable family home. We built both of these Georgetown townhouses on stage, next door to one another, so they actually felt like neighbors but with starkly different interiors.  
While Graham’s house is formal and perfectly appointed, Bradlee’s house is a family home with kids and kids’ mess and books.  
 
I spoke to his daughters and got a sense of what the house actually felt like. They told me it was very eclectic, filled with mementos from their many trips to Paris and his time as a foreign correspondent. The gray/blue paint was inspired by the newsroom and some family photos the daughters sent me. Bradlee had a large collection of Canton china and an affinity for blue and white pottery. The home wasn’t decorated, it was filled with a collection of things they had acquired over the course of their lives, more like a jumble of mementos and miss-matched furnishings that all worked together to give him a very different persona at home than in the newsroom.
 
His wife Toni was an artist and sculptor. Her studio allowed me to add another bohemian layer to the house that contrasted with Kay's formality. Many of the paintings in Bradlee’s house were painted by Kate Capshaw, Steven Spielberg’s wife. She is quite an accomplished painter and was thrilled when I asked if I could use some of her paintings in the set. The large white circular sculptures in the studio were re-creations of Toni’s actual work made by one of our scenics.
 
 
Additional sets...
 
Once the built sets were finished, we moved out onto the streets of Manhattan and onto the streets of White Plains NY which bears a strange resemblance to the Brutalist architecture of DC in the ‘70s.
 
The Rand Corp and the ad agency and the Democratic National Convention office were shot on other floors of the same building as the newsroom. This building became our second sound stage and it became a game of how can we disguise the elevator bank as yet another set? But since we had such limited shooting time and so much to do, it was really a terrific location.
 
The Washington restaurant where Kay and Ben have breakfast was in filmed in the Downtown Association in NYC. The dinner in New York was in the Oak Room in the Oak Room at the Plaza. I spent a lot of time there as a kid so it was fun to re-create that place. It, sadly, is no longer open to the public.
 
Vietnam was shot at SUNY Purchase in Westchester NY. We bulldozed a field and created the Marine base camp, and then the battle was shot in a forested area close by.
 
 
  
 
 
*Editor’s note:
Set Decorator Rena DeAngelo SDSA would like to acknowledge all the vendors and prop houses with whom she worked, especially SDSA Business Members:
Arenson Prop Centre
Astek Wallcovering
Carpet Time
City Knickerbocker
Eclectic Encore
History for Hire 
Newel Props
Practical Props
...and particular thanks to Ron Fennick of Fennick NYC
“For desks and phones and pay phones and so much more. He actually totally saved my life multiple times!”
 
 
  
 
FIRST AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION:
 
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 
 

SUPREME COURT RULING: NEW YORK TIMES V. UNITED STATES 403 U.S. 713
EXCERPT FROM JUSTICE HUGO BLACK:
 

“In the First Amendment the Founding Fathers gave the free press the protection it must have to fulfill its essential role in our democracy. The press was to serve the governed, not the governors. The Government's power to censor the press was abolished so that the press would remain forever free to censure the Government. The press was protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and inform the people. Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government. And paramount among the responsibilities of a free press is the duty to prevent any part of the government from deceiving the people and sending them off to distant lands to die of foreign fevers and foreign shot and shell. In my view, far from deserving condemnation for their courageous reporting, the New York Times, the Washington Post, and other newspapers should be commended for serving the purpose that the Founding Fathers saw so clearly. In revealing the workings of government that led to the Vietnam war, the newspapers nobly did precisely that which the Founders hoped and trusted they would do.”
 







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sex & the city 2
sherlock holmes
the lovely bones
inglourious basterds
cirque du freak